X Window System, Version 11, Release 6 Release Notes

Stephen Gildea

X Consortium

May 16, 1994

Copyright © 1994 X Consortium

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the ``Software''), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.


Except as contained in this notice, the name of the X Consortium shall not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written authorization from the X Consortium.

X Window System is a trademark of X Consortium, Inc.

1.  Easy Build Instructions  

This quick summary is no substitute for reading the full build instructions later in this document.

Edit xc/config/cf/site.def for local preferences. If you want to build with gcc uncomment the HasGcc2 line. If you want to install somewhere other than /usr/X11R6, change ProjectRoot. (Do not use DESTDIR.)

If any fixes have been released by the X Consortium, stop here and follow the instructions at the top of each patch, but don't do any of the make commands suggested in the patches. Then continue here.

Check the appropriate xc/config/cf/vendor.cf file to make sure that OSMajorVersion and OSMinorVersion are set correctly for your system (change them if necessary).

See if there is a BootstrapCFlags mentioned in the comments in the vendor.cf file. If there isn't one, cd to the xc directory and type:

make World >& world.log

If there is a BootstrapCFlags, take its value and type:

make World BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS="value" >& world.log

Do not call the output file ``make.log''. If the build is successful, you can install most of it with:

make install >& install.log

You can install manual pages with:

make install.man >& man.log

While the system is building (or if things fail), read the rest of these Release Notes.

2.  What Is Release 6  

This is the 6th release of X Window System software from the X Consortium. X is a network-transparent window system which runs on a wide range of computing and graphics machines.

The X Consortium is an independent, not-for-profit corporation, the successor to the MIT X Consortium, which was part of the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science. See the XConsortium manual page for details.

2.1.  Overview of the X Consortium Release  

There are two parts to Release 6: X Consortium software and documentation, and user-contributed software and documentation. The X Consortium part contains the following:

X Consortium Standards
The X Consortium produces standards: documents which define network protocols, programming interfaces, and other aspects of the X environment. See the XStandards manual page for a list of standards.
Sample Implementations
For most of our standards, we provide sample implementations to demonstrate proof of concept. These are not reference implementations; the written specifications define the standards.

A collection of bitmap and outline fonts are included in the distribution, contributed by various individuals and companies.
Utility Libraries
A number of libraries, such as the Athena Widget Set, are included. These are not standards, but are used in building X Consortium applications and may be useful in building other applications.
Sample Programs
We also provide a number of application programs. A few of these programs, such as xdm, should be considered essential in almost all environments. The rest of the applications carry no special status; they are simply programs that have been developed and/or maintained by X Consortium staff. In some cases, you will find better substitutes for these programs in the user-contributed part.

The user-contributed part contains whatever people contribute. You'll find a variety of software and documentation here: programs, demos, games, libraries, X server extensions, etc.

2.2.  Supported Systems  

We built and tested this release on the following systems:

A/UX 3.0.1
AIX 3.2.5
BSD/386 1.0
HP-UX 9.1
IRIX 5.2
Mach 2.5 Vers 2.00.1
Microsoft Windows NT 3.1
NCR Unix System V Release 4/MP-RAS
OSF/1 1.3
OSF/1 1.0
SunOS 4.1.3
SunOS 5.3
UNIX System V/386 Release 4.2 Version 1
Unix System V/860 Release 4.0 Version 3
Ultrix-32 4.3
On NT, most of the release builds with the Microsoft SDK. Missing are Fresco, twm, xterm, xdm, xconsole, xinit, xhost, xsm, and the X server. Xt, Xaw, and Xmu libraries are not built as DLLs. Imake works, albeit with some restrictions.

2.3.  The XC Tree  

The first thing you may notice is that you can't find anything. The source tree has undergone a major reorganization since R5. The top-level directory has been renamed from mit/ to xc/. The general layout under xc/ is now as follows:

config/ 	config files, imake, makedepend, build utilities
doc/    	all documentation other than per-program manual pages
fonts/  	BDF, Speedo, Type1 fonts
include/	include files shared by multiple directories
lib/    	all libraries
nls/    	localization files
programs/	all programs, including the X server and rgb
test/   	X Test Suite and other test suites
util/   	patch, compress, other utilities
workInProgress/	snapshots of work in progress
bug-report	bug reporting template
registry	X Registry

2.3.1.  config/  

The xc/config directory now has subdirectories:

config/cf/	all the config files: Imake.tmpl, Project.tmpl, etc.
config/imake/	the imake program
config/makedepend/	the makedepend program
config/util/	other configuration utility programs and scripts

2.3.2.  lib/  

Xlib sources are in xc/lib/X11; we've renamed directories to match the libname.a names.

2.3.3.  doc/  

doc/specs/	X Consortium standards and other specifications 
doc/man/		manual pages for libraries and general manual pages
doc/util/	macro packages and utilities for formatting
doc/hardcopy/	PostScript versions of the documentation

The xc/doc/hardcopy directory contains compressed, pre-formatted PostScript versions of documentation elsewhere in the doc tree and the program manual pages, which are in each program's source directory. These files can be uncompressed with the compress program, which is included in xc/util/compress.

2.3.4.  extensions  

There is no longer a top-level extensions directory. Extension libraries are now under xc/lib/, server extension code is under xc/programs/Xserver/Xext/, and extension header files are under xc/include/extensions/.

2.4.  Extensions supported  

The core distribution includes the following extensions: BIG-REQUESTS, LBX, MIT-SHM, MIT-SUNDRY-NONSTANDARD, Multi-Buffering, RECORD, SHAPE, SYNC, X3D-PEX, XC-MISC, XIE, XInputExtension, XKEYBOARD, XTEST, and XTestExtension1.

2.5.  Implementation Parameters  

Some of the specifications define some behavior as implementation-dependent. Implementations of X Consortium standards need to document how those parameters are implemented; this section does so.

This default can be set at build time by setting the imake variables XFileSearchPathDefault, XAppLoadDir, XFileSearchPathBase, and ProjectRoot in site.def. See xc/config/cf/Project.tmpl for how they are used.

By default, XFILESEARCHPATH has these components:

If the environment variable XAPPLRESDIR is defined, the default value of XUSERFILESEARCHPATH has the following components:
Otherwise it has these components:
Defaults to /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XKeysymDB, assuming ProjectRoot is set to /usr/X11R6.
XCMSDB default
Defaults to /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/Xcms.txt, assuming ProjectRoot is set to /usr/X11R6.
Defaults to the directory /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/locale, assuming ProjectRoot is set to /usr/X11R6.
XErrorDB location
The Xlib error database file is /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XErrorDB, assuming ProjectRoot is set to /usr/X11R6.
XtErrorDB location
The Xt error database file is /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XtErrorDB, assuming ProjectRoot is set to /usr/X11R6.
Supported Locales
For a list of locales supported, see the files locale.dir and locale.alias in the xc/nls/X11/locale/ directory.
Input Methods supported
The core distribution does not include any input methods servers. However, in Latin-1 locales, a default method that supports European compose processing is enabled. See xc/nls/X11/locale/Compose/iso8859-1 for the supported compositions. There are input method servers in contrib.

3.  Building X  

This section gives detailed instructions for building Release 6: getting it off the distribution medium, configuring, compiling, installing, running, and updating.

More recent information about newly-discovered problems may be found in the Frequently Asked Questions posting appearing monthly on the comp.windows.x newsgroup and xpert mailing list. It is also available via anonymous FTP on ftp.x.org in the file contrib/faqs/FAQ.Z, or on your local X mirror site.

3.1.  Unpacking the Distribution  

The distribution normally comes as multiple tar files, either on tape or across a network, or as a CD-ROM.

If you are unpacking tar files, you will need about 150 megabytes to hold the xc/ part.

3.1.1.  Unpacking a Compressed FTP Distribution  

If you have obtained compressed tar files over the network, create a directory to hold the sources and cd into it:

mkdir sourcedir
cd sourcedir
Then for each tar file xc-*.tar.Z, execute this:
zcat ftp-dir/xc-N.tar.Z | tar xpf -

For each tar file contrib-*.tar.Z, execute this:

zcat ftp-dir/contrib-N.tar.Z | tar xpf -

3.1.2.  Unpacking a gzipped FTP Distribution  

If you have obtained gzipped tar files over the network, create a directory to hold the sources and cd into it:

mkdir sourcedir
cd sourcedir
Then for each tar file xc-*.tar.gz, execute this:
gunzip -c ftp-dir/xc-N.tar.gz | tar xpf -

For each tar file contrib-*.tar.gz, execute this:

gunzip -c ftp-dir/contrib-N.tar.gz | tar xpf -

3.1.3.  Unpacking a Split Compressed FTP Distribution  

If you have obtained compressed and split tar files over the network, create a directory to hold the sources:

mkdir sourcedir
Then for each directory xc-*:
cd ftp-dir/xc-N
cat xc-N.?? | uncompress | (cd sourcedir; tar xpf -)

For each directory contrib-*, execute this:

cd ftp-dir/contrib-N
cat contrib-N.?? | uncompress | (cd sourcedir; tar xpf -)

3.1.4.  Unpacking the Tape Distribution  

If you have obtained a tape, create a directory to hold the sources and untar everything into that directory:

mkdir sourcedir
cd sourcedir
tar xpf tape-device

3.1.5.  Using the CD-ROM  

If you have obtained a CD-ROM, you don't have to do anything to unpack it. However, you will have to create a symbolic link tree to build X. See the next section.

3.2.  Apply Patches  

If there are fixes released, apply them now. Follow the instructions at the top of each patch, but don't do any make commands. Then continue here.

3.3.  Symbolic Link Trees  

If you expect to build the distribution on more than one machine using a shared source tree, or you are building from CD-ROM, or you just want to keep the source tree pure, you may want to use the program xc/config/util/lndir.c to create a symbolic link tree on each build machine. The links may use an additional 10 megabytes, but it is cheaper than having multiple copies of the source tree.

It may be tricky to compile lndir before the distribution is built. If you have a copy from Release 5, use that. Makefile.ini can be used for building lndir the first time. You may have to specify OSFLAGS=-Dsomething to get it to compile. What you would pass as BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS might work. The command line looks something like this:

make -f Makefile.ini OSFLAGS=-Dflag

To use a symbolic link tree, create a directory for the build, cd to it, and type this:

lndir sourcedir

where sourcedir is the pathname of the directory where you stored the sources. All of the build instructions given below should then be done in the build directory on each machine, rather than in the source directory.

xc/config/util/mkshadow/ contains mkshadow, an alternative program to lndir.

3.4.  Configuration Parameters  

Build information for each source directory is in files called Imakefile. An Imakefile, along with local configuration information in xc/config/cf/, is used by the program imake to generate a Makefile.

Most of the configuration work prior to building the release is to set parameters so that imake will generate correct files. Most of those parameters are set in xc/config/cf/site.def. You will also need to check the appropriate xc/config/cf/vendor.cf file to make sure that OSMajorVersion, OSMinorVersion, and OsTeenyVersion are set correctly for your system (change them if necessary).

The site.def file has two parts, one protected with ``#ifdef BeforeVendorCF'' and one with ``#ifdef AfterVendorCF''. The file is actually processed twice, once before the .cf file and once after. About the only thing you need to set in the ``before'' section is HasGcc2; just about everything else can be set in the ``after'' section.

The sample site.def also has commented out support to include another file, host.def. This scheme may be useful if you want to set most parameters site-wide, but some parameters vary from machine to machine. If you use a symbolic link tree, you can share site.def across all machines, and give each machine its own copy of host.def.

The config parameters are listed in xc/config/cf/README, but here are some of the more common parameters that you may wish to set in site.def.

The destination where X will be installed. This variable needs to be set before you build, as some programs that read files at run-time have the installation directory compiled in to them. Assuming you have set the variable to some value /path, files will be installed into /path/bin, /path/include/X11, /path/lib, and /path/man.
Set to YES to build with gcc version 1.
Set to YES to build with gcc version 2. Both this option and HasGcc look for a compiler named gcc, but HasGcc2 will cause the build to use more features of gcc 2, such as the ability to compile shared libraries.
Declares the system has a C++ compiler. C++ is necessary to build Fresco. On some systems, you may also have to set additional variables to say what C++ compiler you have.
This is a directory where programs will be found even if PATH is not set in the environment. It is independent of ProjectRoot and defaults to /usr/bin. It is used, for example, when connecting from a remote system via rsh. The rstart program installs its server in this directory.
Some systems require the X server to run as root to access the devices it needs. If you are on such a system and will not be using xdm, you can set this variable to YES to install the X server setuid to root. Note that the X server has not been analyzed by the X Consortium for security in such an installation; talk to your system manager before setting this variable.
Causes Xlib and Xt to work around some bugs in older versions of Motif. Set to YES only if you will be linking with Motif version 1.1.1, 1.1.2, or 1.1.3.
Setting this variable to YES allows illegal XtGetValues requests with NULL ArgVal to usually succeed, as R5 did. Some applications erroneously rely on this behavior. Support for this will be removed in a future release.

The following vendor.cf files are in the release but have not been tested recently and hence probably need changes to work: DGUX.cf, Mips.cf, apollo.cf, bsd.cf, convex.cf, moto.cf, pegasus.cf, x386.cf. Amoeba.cf is known to require additional patches.

The file xc/lib/Xdmcp/Wraphelp.c, for XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1, is not included in this release. The file is available within the US; for details get /pub/R6/xdm-auth/README from ftp.x.org via anonymous FTP.

3.5.  System Notes  

This section contains hints on building X with specific compilers and operating systems.

3.5.1.  gcc  

gcc version 2 is in regular use at the X Consortium. You should have no problems using it to build. Set the variable HasGcc2. X will not compile on some systems with gcc version 2.5, 2.5.1, or 2.5.2 because of an incorrect declaration of memmove() in a gcc include file.

3.5.2.  SparcWorks 2.0  

If you have a non-threaded program and want to debug it with the old SparcWorks 2.0 dbx, you will need to use the thread stubs library in xc/util/misc/thr_stubs.c. Compile it as follows:

cc -c thr_stubs.c
ar cq libthr_stubs.a thr_stubs.o
ranlib libthr_stubs.a
Install libthr_stubs.a in the same directory with your X libraries (e.g., /usr/X11R6/lib/libthr_stubs.a). Add the following line to site.def:
#define ExtraLibraries -lsocket -lnsl $(CDEBUGFLAGS:-g=-lthr_stubs)
This example uses a make macro substitution; not all make implementations support this feature.

3.5.3.  CenterLine C under Solaris 2.3  

If you are using the CenterLine C compiler to compile the distribution under Solaris 2.3, place the following line in your site.def:

#define HasCenterLineC YES
If clcc is not in your default search path, add this line to site.def:
#define CcCmd /path/to/your/clcc

If you are using CodeCenter 4.0.4 or earlier, the following files trigger bugs in the clcc optimizer:


Thus to build the server, you will have to compile these files by hand with the -g flag:

% cd xc/programs/Xserver/cfb16
% make CDEBUGFLAGS="-g" cfbgetsp.o cfbfillsp.o
% cd ../cfb 
% make CDEBUGFLAGS="-g" cfbgetsp.o
This optimizer bug appears to be fixed in CodeCenter 4.0.6.

3.5.4.  Microsoft Windows NT  

The set of operating systems that the client-side code will run on has been expanded to include Microsoft Windows NT. All of the base libraries are supported, including multi-threading in Xlib and Xt, but some of the more complicated applications, specifically xterm and xdm, are not supported.

There are also some other rough edges in the implementation, such as lack of support for non-socket file descriptors as Xt alternate inputs and not using the registry for configurable parameters like the system filenames and search paths.

3.6.  The Build  

On NT, type

nmake World.Win32 > world.log
On other systems, find the BootstrapCFlags line, if any, in the vendor.cf file. If there isn't one, type
make World >& world.log
otherwise type
make World BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS="value" >& world.log

You can call the output file something other than ``world.log'', but do not call it ``make.log'' because files with this name are automatically deleted during the ``cleaning'' stage of the build.

Because the build can take several hours to complete, you will probably want to run it in the background and keep a watch on the output. For example:

make World >& world.log &
tail -f world.log

If something goes wrong, the easiest thing is to just start over (typing ``make World'' again) once you have corrected the problem. It is possible that a failure will corrupt the top-level Makefile. If that happens, simply delete the file and recreate a workable substitute:

cp Makefile.ini Makefile

3.7.  Installing X  

If everything is built successfully, you can install the software by typing the following as root:

make install >& install.log

Again, you might want to run this in the background and use tail to watch the progress.

You can install the manual pages by typing the following as root:

make install.man >& man.log

3.8.  Shared Libraries  

Except on SunOS 4, the version number of all the shared libraries has changed to 6.0. If you want programs linked against previous versions of the libraries to use the R6 libraries, create a link from the old name to the new name.

3.9.  Setting Up xterm  

If your /etc/termcap and /usr/lib/terminfo databases do not have correct entries for xterm, use the sample entries provided in the directory xc/programs/xterm/. System V users may need to compile and install the terminfo entry with the tic utility.

Since each xterm will need a separate pseudoterminal, you need a reasonable number of them for normal execution. You probably will want at least 32 on a small, multiuser system. On most systems, each pty has two devices, a master and a slave, which are usually named /dev/tty[pqrstu][0-f] and /dev/pty[pqrstu][0-f]. If you don't have at least the ``p'' and ``q'' sets configured (try typing ``ls /dev/?ty??''), you should have your system administrator add them. This is commonly done by running the MAKEDEV script in the /dev directory with appropriate arguments.

3.10.  Starting Servers at System Boot  

The xfs and xdm programs are designed to be run automatically at system startup. Please read the manual pages for details on setting up configuration files; reasonable sample files are in xc/programs/xdm/config/ and xc/programs/xfs/.

If your system uses an /etc/rc file at boot time, you can usually enable these programs by placing the following at or near the end of the file:

if [ -f /usr/X11R6/bin/xfs ]; then
        /usr/X11R6/bin/xfs &; echo -n ' xfs'

if [ -f /usr/X11R6/bin/xdm ]; then
        /usr/X11R6/bin/xdm; echo -n ' xdm'

Since xfs can serve fonts over the network, you do not need to run a font server on every machine with an X display. You should start xfs before xdm, since xdm may start an X server which is a client of the font server.

The examples here use /usr/X11R6/bin, but if you have installed into a different directory by setting (or unsetting) ProjectRoot then you need to substitute the correct directory.

If you are unsure about how system boot works, or if your system does not use /etc/rc, consult your system administrator for help.

3.11.  Using OPEN LOOK applications  

You can use the X11R6 Xsun server with OPEN LOOK applications, but you must pass the new -swapLkeys flag to the server on startup, or the OPEN LOOK Undo, Copy, Paste, Find, and Cut keys may not work correctly. For example, to run Sun's OpenWindows 3.3 desktop environment with an X11R6 server, use the command:

% openwin -server /usr/X11R6/bin/Xsun -swapLkeys

The keysyms reported by keys on the numeric keypad have also changed since X11R5; if you find that OpenWindows applications do not respond to keypad keys and cursor control keys when using the R6 server, you can remap the keypad to generate R5 style keysyms using the following xmodmap commands:

keysym Pause = F21
keysym Print = F22
keysym Break = F23
keysym KP_Equal = F24
keysym KP_Divide = F25
keysym KP_Multiply = F26
keysym KP_Home = F27
keysym KP_Up = Up
keysym KP_Prior = F29
keysym KP_Left = Left
keycode 100 = F31
keysym KP_Right = Right
keysym KP_End = F33
keysym KP_Down = Down
keysym KP_Next = F35
keysym KP_Insert = Insert
keysym KP_Delete = Delete

3.12.  Rebuilding after Patches  

You shouldn't need this right away, but eventually you are probably going to make changes to the sources, for example by applying X Consortium public patches.

Each patch comes with explicit instructions at the top of it saying what to do. Thus the procedure here is only an overview of the types of commands that might be necessary to rebuild X after changing it.

If you are building from CD-ROM, apply the patches to the symbolic link tree. The links to changed files will be replaced with a local file containing the new contents.

If only source files are changed, you should be able to rebuild just by going to the xc directory in your build tree and typing:

make >& make.log

If configuration files are changed, the safest thing to do is type:

make Everything >& every.log

``Everything'' is similar to ``World'' in that it rebuilds every Makefile, but unlike ``World'' it does not delete the existing objects, libraries, and executables, and only rebuilds what is out of date.

Note that in both kinds of rebuilds you do not need to supply the BootstrapCFlags value any more; the information is already recorded.

3.13.  Building Contributed Software  

The software in contrib is not set up to have everything built automatically. It is assumed that you will build individual pieces as you find the desire, time, and/or disk space. You need to have the X Consortium part built and installed before building the contributed software. To build a program or library in contrib, look in its directory for any special build instructions (for example, a README file). If there are none, and there is an Imakefile, cd to the directory and type:

xmkmf -a
make >& make.log

This will build a Makefile in the directory and all subdirectories, and then build the software. If the build is successful, you should be able to install it using the same commands used for the xc software:

make install >& install.log
make install.man >& man.log

4.  What Is New in Release 6  

This section describes changes in the X Consortium distribution since Release 5. Release 6 contains much new functionality in many areas. In addition, many bugs have been fixed. However, in the effort to develop the new technology in this release, some bugs, particularly in client programs, did not get fixed.

Except where noted, all libraries, protocols, and servers are upward compatible with Release 5. That is, R5 clients and applications should continue to work with R6 libraries and servers.

4.1.  New Standards  

The following are new X Consortium standards in Release 6. Each is described in its own section below.

X Image Extension
Inter-Client Communications Conventions Manual (update)
Inter-Client Exchange Protocol
Inter-Client Exchange Library
X Session Management Protocol
X Session Management Library
Input Method Protocol
X Logical Font Descriptions (update)
SYNC extension
XTEST extension
PEX 5.1 Protocol (released after R5)
PEXlib (released after R5)
BIG-REQUESTS extension
XC-MISC extension

4.2.  XIE (X Image Extension)  

The sample implementation in Release 6 is a complete implementation of full XIE 5.0 protocol, except for the following techniques that are excluded from the SI:

ColorAlloc:	Match, Requantize
Convolve:	Replicate
Decode:		JPEG lossless
Encode:		JPEG lossless
Geometry:	AntialiasByArea, AntialiasByLowpass

xieperf exercises the server functionality; it provides unit testing and a reasonable measure of multi-element photoflo testing.

A draft standard of the XIElib specification is included in this release and is open for Public Review. The XIElib code matches the 5.0 protocol.

The JPEG compression and decompression code is based on the Independent JPEG Group's (IJG) JPEG software, Release 4. This software provides baseline Huffman DCT encoding as defined by ISO/IEC DIS 10918-1, ``Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous-tone Still Images, Part 1: Requirements and guidelines'', and was chosen as a basis for our implementation of JPEG compression and decompression primarily because the IJG's design goals matched ours for the implementation of the XIE SI: achieve portability and flexibility without sacrificing performance. Less than half of the files distributed by the IJG have been incorporated into the XIE SI. The IJG's software is made available with restrictions; see xc/programs/Xserver/XIE/mixie/jpeg/README.

4.3.  Inter-Client Communications Conventions Manual  

Release 6 includes version 2.0 of the ICCCM. This version contains a large number of changes and clarifications in the areas of window management, selections, session management, and resource sharing.

4.3.1.  Window Management  

The circumstances under which the window manager is required to send synthetic ConfigureNotify events have been clarified to ensure that any ConfigureWindow request issued by the client will result in a ConfigureNotify event, either from the server or from the window manager. We have also added advice about how a client should inspect events so as to minimize the number of situations where it is necessary to use the TranslateCoordinates request.

The window_gravity field of WM_NORMAL_HINTS has a new value, StaticGravity, which specifies that the window manager should not shift the client window's location when reparenting the window.

The base size in the WM_NORMAL_HINTS property is now to be included in the aspect ratio calculation.

The WM_STATE property now has a formal definition (it was previously only suggested).

4.3.2.  Selections  

We have clarified the CLIENT_WINDOW, LENGTH, and MULTIPLE targets. We have also added a number of new targets for Encapsulated PostScript and for the Apple Macintosh PICT structured graphics format. We have also defined a new selection property type C_STRING, which is a string of non-zero bytes. (This is in contrast to the STRING type, which excludes many control characters.)

A selection requester can now pass parameters in with the request.

Another new facility is manager selections. This use of the selection mechanism is not to transfer data, but to allow clients known as managers to provide services to other clients. Version 2.0 also specifies that window managers should hold a manager selection. At present, the only service defined for window managers is to report the ICCCM version number to which the window manager complies. Now that this facility is in place, additional services can be added in the future.

4.3.3.  Resource Sharing  

A prominent new addition in version 2.0 is the ability of clients to take control of colormap installation under certain circumstances. Earlier versions of the ICCCM specified that the window manager had exclusive control over colormap installation. This proves to be inconvenient for certain situations, such as when a client has the server grabbed. Version 2.0 allows clients to install colormaps themselves after having informed the window manager. Clients must hold a pointer grab for the entire time they are doing their own colormap installation.

Version 2.0 also clarifies a number of rules about how clients can exchange resources. These rules are important when a client places a resource ID into a hints property or passes a resource ID through the selection mechanism.

4.3.4.  Session Management  

Some of the properties in section 5 of ICCCM 1.1 are now obsolete, and new properties for session management have been defined.

4.4.  ICE (Inter-Client Exchange)  

ICE provides a common framework to build protocols on. It supplies authentication, byte order negotiation, version negotiation, and error reporting conventions. It supports multiplexing multiple protocols over a single transport connection. ICElib provides a common interface to these mechanisms so that protocol implementors need not reinvent them.

An iceauth program was written to manipulate an ICE authority file; it is very similar to the xauth program.

4.5.  SM (Session Management)  

The X Session Management Protocol (XSMP) provides a uniform mechanism for users to save and restore their sessions using the services of a network-based session manager. It is built on ICE. SMlib is the C interface to the protocol. There is also support for XSMP in Xt.

A simple session manager, xsm is included in xc/workInProgress/xsm.

A new protocol, rstart, greatly simplifies the task of starting applications on remote machines. It is built upon already existing remote execution protocols such as rsh. The most important feature that it adds is the ability to pass environment variables and authentication data to the applications being started.

4.6.  Input Method Protocol  

Some languages need complex pre-editing input methods, and such an input method may be implemented separately from applications in a process called an Input Method (IM) Server. The IM Server handles the display of pre-edit text and the user's input operation. The Input Method (IM) Protocol standardizes the communication between the IM Server and the IM library linked with the application.

The IM Protocol is a completely new protocol, based on experience with R5's sample implementations. The following new features are added, beyond the mechanisms in the R5 sample implementations:

The R6 sample implementation for the internationalization support in Xlib has a new pluggable framework, with the capability of loading and switching locale object modules dynamically. For backward compatibility, the R6 sample implementation can support the R5 protocols by switching to IM modules supporting those protocols. In addition, the framework provides the following new functions and mechanisms:

X Locale database format:
An X Locale database format is defined, and the subset of a user's environment dependent on language is provided as a plain ASCII text file. You can customize the behavior of Xlib without changing Xlib itself.
ANSI C and non-ANSI C bindings
The common set of methods and structures are defined, which bind the X locale to the system locales within libc, and a framework for implementing this common set under non-ANSI C base system is provided.
The sample implementation has a mechanism to support various encodings by pluggable converters, and provides the following converters:
   - Light weight converter for C and ISO 8859
   - Generic converter (relatively slow) for other encoding
   - High performance converter for Shift-JIS and EUC
   - Converter for UCS-2 defined in ISO/IEC 10646-1
You can add your converter using this mechanism for your specific performance requirement.
Locale modules
The library is implemented such that input methods and output methods are separated and are independent of each other. Therefore, an output-only client does not link with the IM code, and an input-only client does not link with the OM code. Locale modules can be loaded on demand if the platform supports dynamic loading.
Transport Layer
There are several kinds of transports for connection between the IM library and the IM Server. The IM Protocol is independent of a specific transport layer protocol, and the sample implementation has a mechanism to permit an IM Server to define the transports which the IM Server is willing to use. The sample implementation supports transport over the X protocol, TCP/IP and DECnet.

There are IM Servers for Japanese and for Korean, internationalized clients using IM services, and an IM Server developer's kit in contrib. The IM Server developer's kit hides the details of the IM Protocol and the transport layer protocols, and hides the differences between the R5 and R6 protocols from the IM Server developer, so that an IM developer has an easier task in developing new IM Servers.

4.7.  X Logical Font Description  

The X Logical Font Description has been enhanced to include general 2D linear transformations, character set subsets, and support for polymorphic fonts. See xc/doc/specs/XLFD/xlfd.tbl.ms for details.

4.8.  SYNC extension  

The Synchronization extension lets clients synchronize via the X server. This eliminates the network delays and the differences in synchronization primitives between operating systems. The extension provides a general Counter resource; clients can alter the value of a Counter, and can block their execution until a Counter reaches a specific threshold. Thus, for example, two clients can share a Counter initialized to zero, one client can draw some graphics and then increment the Counter, and the other client can block until the Counter reaches a value of one and then draw some additional graphics.

4.9.  BIG-REQUESTS extension  

The standard X protocol only allows requests up to 2^18 bytes long. A new protocol extension, BIG-REQUESTS, has been added that allows a client to extend the length field in protocol requests to be a 32-bit value. This useful for PEX and other extensions that transmit complex information to the server.

4.10.  XC-MISC extension  

A new extension, XC-MISC, allows clients to get back ID ranges from the server. Xlib handles this automatically under the covers. This is useful for long-running applications that use many IDs over their lifetime.

4.11.  XTEST extension  

The XTEST extension, which first shipped as a patch to Release 5, is included.

4.12.  Tree Reorganization  

Many of the directories under xc/ (renamed from mit/) have been moved. See the section The XC Tree for the new layout. The reorganization has simplified dependencies in the build process. Once you get used to the new layout, things will be easier to find.

Various filenames have been changed to minimize name conflicts on systems that limit file names to eight characters, a period, and three more characters. Conflicts remain for various header (.h) files.

4.13.  Configuration Files  

The configuration files have changed quite a bit, we hope in a mostly compatible fashion. The main config files are now in xc/config/cf, imake sources are in xc/config/imake, and makedepend sources are in xc/config/makedepend. The lndir program (for creating link trees) is in xc/config/util; there is a Makefile.ini in that directory that may be useful to get lndir built the first time (before you build the rest of the tree).

The rules for building libraries have changed a lot; it is now much easier to add a new library to the system.

The selection of vendor.cf file has moved from Imake.tmpl to a new Imake.cf.

The config variable that was called ServerOSDefines in R5 has been renamed to ServerExtraDefines, and applies globally to all X server sources. The variable ServerOSDefines now applies just to the os directory of the server.

There are a number of new config variables dealing with C++, all of which have ``Cplusplus'' in their names.

``#'' should no longer be thought of as a valid comment character in Imakefiles; use ``XCOMM'' instead.

There are new variables (e.g., HasPoll, HasBSD44Sockets, ThreadedX) and rules (SpecialCObjectRule). Read xc/config/cf/README for details.

The way libraries get built has changed: the unshared library .o's are now placed in a subdirectory rather than the shared library .o's.

Multi-threaded programs can often just include Threads.tmpl in their Imakefile to get the correct compile-time defines and libraries.

4.14.  Kerberos  

There is a new authorization scheme for X clients, MIT-KERBEROS-5. It implements MIT's Kerberos Version 5 user-to-user authentication. See the Xsecurity manual page for details on how Kerberos works in X. As with any other authentication protocol, xdm sets it up at login time, and Xlib uses it to authenticate the client to the X server.

If you have Kerberos 5 on your system, set the HasKrb5 config variable in site.def to YES to enable Kerberos support.

4.15.  X Transport Library (xtrans)  

The X Transport Library is intended to combine all system and transport specific code into a single place in the source tree. This API should be used by all libraries, clients and servers of the X Window System. Note that this API is not an X Consortium standard; it is merely in internal part of our implementation. Use of this API should allow the addition of new types of transports and support for new platforms without making any changes to the source except in the X Transport Interface code.

The following areas have been updated to use xtrans:

lib/X11 (including the Input Method code)

The XDMCP code in xdm and the X server has not been modified to use xtrans.

No testing has been done for DECnet.

4.16.  Xlib  

Xlib now supports multi-threaded access to a single display connection. Xlib functions lock the display structure, causing other threads calling Xlib functions to be suspended until the first thread unlocks. Threads inside Xlib waiting to read to or write from the X server do not keep the display locked, so for example a thread hanging on XNextEvent will not prevent other threads from doing output to the server.

Multi-threaded Xlib runs on SunOS 5.3, DEC OSF/1 1.3, Mach 2.5 Vers 2.00.1, AIX 2.3, and Microsoft Windows NT 3.1. Locking for Xcms and I18N support has not been reviewed. A version of ico that can be compiled to use threads is in contrib/programs/ico.

The Display and GC structures have been made opaque to normal application code; references to private fields will get compiler errors. You can work around some of these by compiling with -DXLIB_ILLEGAL_ACCESS, but better to fix the offending code.

The Xlib implementation has been changed to support a form of asynchronous replies, meaning that a request can be sent off to the server, and then other requests can be generated without waiting for the first reply to come back. This is used to advantage in two new functions, XInternAtoms and XGetAtomNames, which reduce what would otherwise require multiple round trips to the server down to a single round trip. It is also used in some existing functions, such as XGetWindowAttributes, to reduce two round trips to just one.

Lots of Xlib source files were renamed to fit better on systems with short filenames. The ``X'' prefix was dropped from most file names, and ``CIE'' and ``TekHVC'' prefixes were dropped.

Support for using poll() rather than select() is implemented, selected by the HasPoll config option.

The BIG-REQUESTS extension is supported.

The following Xlib functions are new in Release 6:

XInternAtoms, XGetAtomNames
XAddConnectionWatch, XRemoveConnectionWatch, XProcessInternalConnection
XInitThreads, XLockDisplay, XUnlockDisplay

XOpenOM, XCloseOM
XSetOMValues, XGetOMValues
XDisplayOfOM, XLocaleOfOM
XCreateOC, XDestroyOC
XSetOCValues, XGetOCValues
XDirectionalDependentDrawing, XContextualDrawing
XRegisterIMInstantiateCallback, XUnregisterIMInstantiateCallback

_XAllocTemp, _XFreeTemp

Support for MIT-KERBEROS-5 has been added.

4.17.  Internationalization  

Internationalization (also known as I18N, there being 18 letters between the i and n) of the X Window System, which was originally introduced in Release 5, has been significantly improved in R6. The R6 I18N architecture follows that in R5, being based on the locale model used in ANSI C and POSIX, with most of the I18N capability provided by Xlib. R5 introduced a fundamental framework for internationalized input and output. It could enable basic localization for left-to-right, non-context sensitive, 8-bit or multi-byte codeset languages and cultural conventions. However, it did not deal with all possible languages and cultural conventions. R6 also does not cover all possible languages and cultural conventions, but R6 contains substantial new Xlib interfaces to support I18N enhancements, in order to enable additional language support and more practical localization.

The additional support is mainly in the area of text display. In order to support multi-byte encodings, the concept of a FontSet was introduced in R5. In R6, Xlib enhances this concept to a more generalized notion of output methods and output contexts. Just as input methods and input contexts support complex text input, output methods and output contexts support complex and more intelligent text display, dealing not only with multiple fonts but also with context dependencies. The result is a general framework to enable bi-directional text and context sensitive text display.

4.18.  Xt  

Support has been added for participation in session management, with callbacks to application functionality in response to messages from the session manager.

The entire library is now thread-safe, allowing one thread at a time to enter the library and protecting global data as necessary from concurrent use.

Support is provided for registering event handlers for events generated by X protocol extensions, and for dispatching those events to the appropriate widget.

A mechanism has also been added for dispatching events for non-widget drawables (such as pixmaps used within a widget) to a widget.

Two new widget methods for instance allocation and deallocation allow widgets to be treated as C++ objects in a C++ environment.

A new interface allows bundled changes to the managed set of children of a Composite, reducing the visual disruption of multiple changes to geometry layout.

Several new resources have been added to Shell widgets, making the library compliant with the Release 6 ICCCM. Parameterized targets of selections (new in Release 6) and the MULTIPLE target are supported with new APIs.

Safe handling of POSIX signals and other asynchronous notifications is now provided.

A hook has been added to give notification of blocking in the event manager.

The client will be able to register callbacks on a per-display basis for notification of a large variety of operations in the X Toolkit. This feature is useful to external agents such as screen readers.

New String resource converters: XtStringToGravity and XtCvtStringToRestartStyle.

The file search path syntax has a new %D substitution that inserts the default search path, making it easy to prepend and append to the default search path.

The Xt implementation allows a configuration choice of poll or select for I/O multiplexing, selectable at compile time by the HasPoll config option.

The Release 6 Xt implementation requires Release 6 Xlib. Specifically, it uses the following new Xlib features: XInternAtoms instead of multiple XInternAtom calls where possible, input method support (Xlib internal connections), and tests for the XVisibleHint in the flags of XWMHints.

When linking with Xt, you now need to also link with SMlib and ICElib. This is automatic if you use the XTOOLLIB make variable or XawClientLibs imake variable in your Imakefiles.

This implementation no longer allows NULL to be passed as the value in the name/value pair in a request to XtGetValues. The default behavior is to print the error message ``NULL ArgVal In XtGetValues'' and exit. To restore the R5 behavior, set the config variable GetValuesBC in site.def. The old behavior was never part of the Xt specification, but some applications erroneously rely on it.

Motif 1.2 defines the types XtTypedArg and XtTypedArgList in VaSimpleP.h. These types are now defined in IntrinsicP.h. To work around the conflict, in Motif VaSimple.c, if IntrinsicP.h is not already included before VaSimpleP.h, do so. In VaSimpleP.h, fence off the type declarations with #if (XT_REVISION < 6) and #endif.

See Chapter 13 of the Xt specification for more details.

4.19.  Xaw  

Some minor bugs have been fixed. Please note that the Athena Widgets have been and continue to be low on our priority list; therefore many bugs remain and many requests for enhancements have not been implemented.

Text and Panner widget translations have been augmented to include keypad cursor keysyms in addition to the normal cursor keysyms.

The Clock, Logo, and Mailbox widgets have moved to their respective applications.

Internationalization support is now included. Xaw uses native widechar support when available, otherwise it uses the Xlib widechar routines. Per system specifics are set in XawI18n.h.

The shared library major version number on SunOS 4 has been incremented because of these changes.

4.19.1.  AsciiText  

The name AsciiText is now a misnomer, but has been retained for backward compatibility. A new resource, XtNinternational, has been added. If the value of the XtNinternational resource is False (the default) AsciiSrc and AsciiSink source and sink widgets are created, and the widget behaves as it did for R5. If the value is True, MultiSrc and MultiSink source and sink widgets are created. The MultiSrc widget will connect to an Input Method Server if one is available, or if one isn't available, it will use an Xlib internal pseudo input method that, at a minimum, does compose processing. Application programmers who wish to use this feature will need to add a call to XtSetLanguageProc to their programs.

The symbolic constant FMT8BIT has been changed to XawFmt8Bit to be consistent with the new symbolic constant XawFmtWide. FMT8BIT remains for backwards compatibility, however its use is discouraged as it will eventually be removed from the implementation. See the Xaw manual for details.

4.19.2.  Command, Label, List, MenuButton, Repeater, SmeBSB, and Toggle  

Two new resources have been added, XtNinternational and XtNfontSet. If XtNinternational is set to True the widget displays its text using the specified fontset. See the Xaw manual for details.

4.20.  PEX  

In discussing PEX it is important to understand the nature of 3D graphics and the purpose of the existence of the PEX SI. The type of graphics for which PEX provides support, while capable of being done in software, is most commonly found in high performance hardware. Creation and maintenance of software rendering code is costly and resource consumptive. The original Sample Implementation for the PEX Protocol 5.0 was primarily intended for consumption by vendors of the X Consortium who intended to provide PEX products for sale. This implementation was intended to be fairly complete however it was understood that vendors who intended to commercialize it would dispose of portions of it, often fairly substantial ones. It was therefore understood that functionality most likely to be disposed of by them might be neglected in the development of a Sample Implementation. As PEX is now a fairly mature standard distributed by most if not all major vendors, and the standard itself has evolved from the 5.0 protocol level to the 5.1 protocol level, the X Consortium and its supporting vendors have recognized a need to focus on certain portions of the PEX technology while deemphasizing others.

This release incorporates PEX functionality based upon the PEX 5.1 level protocol. The PEX Sample Implementation (SI) is composed of several parts. The major components are the extension to the X Server, which implements the PEX 5.1 protocol, and the client side API, which provides a mechanism by which clients can generate PEX protocol.

The API now provided with the PEX-SI is called PEXlib. This is a change from R5 which shipped an API based upon the ISO IS PHIGS and PHIGS PLUS Bindings. That API has been moved to contrib in favor of the PEXlib API based upon the PEXlib 5.1 binding, which itself is an X Consortium standard. The PEXlib binding is a lower-level interface than the previous PHIGS binding was and maps more closely to the PEX protocol itself. It supports immediate mode rendering functionality as well as the previous PHIGS workstation modes and is therefore suited to a wider range of applications. It is also suited for the development of higher level APIs. There are in fact commercial implementations of the PHIGS API which utilize the PEXlib API.

The PHIGS API based verification tool called InsPEX is moved to contrib. A prototype of a possible new tool called suspex is in the directory contrib/test/suspex. Suspex is PEXlib based.

Demo programs are no longer supported and have moved to contrib.

4.20.1.  PEX Standards and Functionality  

This release conforms to the PEX Protocol Specification 5.1 though it does not implement all the functionality specified therein.

The release comes with 2 fonts, Roman and Roman_M (see the User's Guide for more details).

As discussed briefly above certain functionality is not implemented in this Sample Implementation. Most notably Hidden Line, Hidden Surface Removal is not implemented. This is a result of both architectural decisions and the fact that it surely would have been replaced by vendors with proprietary code. A contributed implementation which supports some of the HLHSR functionality utilizing a Z buffer based technique is available for ftp from ftp.x.org in the directory contrib/PEX_HLHSR.

This release does not support monochrome displays, though it does support 8 bit and 24 bit color.

Other functionality not complete in this release is:

Backface Attributes and Distinguish Flag
Font sharing between clients
Patterns, Hatches and associated attributes
Depth Cueing for Markers

Double Buffering is available for the PHIGS Workstation subsets directly through the workstation. The buffer mode should be set on when creating the workstation. For immediate mode users double buffering is achieved via the Multi Buffering Extension (aka MBX) found in the directory xc/lib/Xext.

PEX 5.1 protocol adds certain functionality to the Server extension, accessible directly via the PEXlib API. This functionality includes Picking via the Immediate Mode Renderer (Render Elements and Accumulate State commands in Chapter 6, all of Chapter 7); new Escape requests to allow vendors to support optional functionality; a Match Rendering Targets request to return information about visuals, depth and drawables the server can support; a noop Output command; Hierarchical HLHSR control (i.e., during traversals); and renderer clearing controls are the most important features.

4.21.  Header Files  

Two new macros are defined in Xos.h: X_GETTIMEOFDAY and strerror. X_GETTIMEOFDAY is like gettimeofday() but takes one argument on all systems. strerror is defined only on systems that don't already have it.

A new header file Xthreads.h provides a platform-independent interface to threads functions on various systems. Include it instead of the system threads header file. Use the macros defined in it instead of the system threads functions.

4.22.  Fonts  

There are three new Chinese bdf fonts in xc/fonts/bdf/misc (gb16fs.bdf, gb16st.bdf, gb24st.bdf).

Bitmap Charter fonts that are identical to the output generated from the outline font have been moved to xc/fonts/bdf/unnec_{75,100}dpi.

The Type 1 fonts contributed by Bitstream, IBM, and Adobe that shipped in contrib in Release 5 have been moved into the core.

Some of the misc fonts, mostly in the Clean family, have only the ASCII characters, but were incorrectly labeled ``ISO8859-1''. These fonts have been renamed to be ``ISO646.1991-IRV''. Aliases have been provided for the Release 5 names.

The 9x15 font has new shapes for some characters. The 6x10 font has the entire ISO 8859-1 character set.

4.23.  Font library  

The Type1 rasterizer that shipped in contrib in Release 5 is now part of the core.

There is an option to have the X server request glyphs only as it needs them. The X server then caches the glyphs for future use.

Aliases in a fonts.alias file can allow one scalable alias name to match all instances of another font. The ``!'' character introduces a comment line in fonts.alias files.

A sample font authorization protocol, ``hp-hostname-1'' has been added. It is based on host names and is non-authenticating. The client requesting a font from a font server provides (or passes through from its client) the host name of the ultimate client of the font. There is no check that this host name is accurate, as this is a sample protocol only.

The Speedo rasterizer can now read fonts with retail encryption. This means that fonts bought over-the-counter at a computer store can be used by the font server and X server.

Many, many bugs have been fixed.

4.24.  Font server  

The font server has been renamed from fs to xfs to avoid confusion with an AFS program. The default port has changed from 7000 (used by AFS) to 7100 and has been registered with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

The font server now implements a new major protocol version, version 2. This change was made only to correct errors in the implementation of version 1. Version 1 is still accepted by xfs.

You can now connect to xfs using the local/ transport.

Many, many bugs have been fixed.

4.25.  X server  

The server sources have moved to xc/programs/Xserver. Server-side extension code exists as subdirectories. The ddx directory is gone; mi, cfb, and mfb are at the top level, and a hw (hardware) subdirectory now exists for holding vendor-specific ddx code. Note: the absence of a ddx directory does not imply that the conceptual split between dix and ddx is gone.

Function prototypes have been added to header files in xc/programs/Xserver/include, cfb, mfb, mi, and os.

Support for pixmap privates has been added. It is turned off by default, but can be activated by putting -DPIXPRIV in the ServerExtraDefines parameter in your vendor.cf file. See the porting layer document for details.

New screen functions, called primarily by code in window.c, have been added to make life easier for vendors with multi-layered framebuffers. Several functions and some pieces of functions have moved from window.c to miwindow.c. See the porting layer document for details. Also, the contents of union _Validate (validate.h) are now device dependent; mivalidate.h contains a sample definition.

An implementation of the SYNC extension is in xc/programs/Xserver/Xext/sync.c. As part of this work, client priorities have also been implemented; see the tail end of WaitForSomething() in WaitFor.c. The priority scheme is strict in that the client(s) with the highest priority always runs. twm has been modified to provide simple facilities for setting client priorities.

The server can now fetch font glyphs on demand instead of loading them all at once. See xc/programs/Xserver/dix/dixfonts.c, xc/lib/font/fc/fserve.c, and xc/lib/font/fc/fsconvert.c. A new X server command line option, -deferglyphs, controls which types of fonts (8 vs. 16 bit) to demand load; see the X manual page for details.

The os layer now uses sigaction on POSIX systems; a new function OsSignal was added for convenience, which you should use in your ddx code.

A new timer interface has been added to the os layer; see the functions in os/WaitFor.c. This interface is used by XKB, but we haven't tried to use it anywhere else (such as Xext/sleepuntil.c) yet.

Redundant code for GC funcs was moved from cfbgc.c and mfbgc.c to migc.c. This file also contains a few utility functions such as miComputeCompositeClip, which replaces the chunk of code that used to appear near the top of most versions of ValidateGC.

The cfb code can now be compiled multiple times to provide support for multiple depths in the same server, e.g., 8, 12, and 24. See Imakefile and cfb/cfbmskbits.h under the xc/programs/Xserver/ directory for starters.

The cfb and mfb code have been modified to perform 64 bit reads and writes of the framebuffer on the Alpha AXP. These modifications should be usable on other 64 bit architectures as well, though we have not tested it on any others. There are a few hacks in dix, notably ProcPutImage and ProcGetImage, to work around the fact that the protocol doesn't allow you to specify 64 bit padding. Note that the server will still not run on a machine such as a Cray that does not have a 32 bit data type.

For performance, all region operations are now invoked via macros which by default make direct calls to the appropriate mi functions. You can conditionally compile them to continue calling through the screen structure. The following change was made throughout the server:

``(*pScreen->RegionOp)(...)'' changes to ``REGION_OP(pScreen, ...)''

Some of the trivial region ops have been inlined in the macros. For compatibility, the region function pointers remain in the screen structure even if the server is compiled to make direct calls to mi. See include/regionstr.h.

A generic callback manager is included and can be used to add notification-style hooks anywhere in the server. See dixutils.c. The callback manager is now being used to provide notification of when the server is grabbed/ungrabbed, when a client's state changes, and when an event is sent to a client. The latter two are used by the RECORD extension.

A new option has been added, -config filename. This lets you put server options in a file. See os/utils.c.

Xtrans has been installed into the os layer. See os/connection.c, io.c, and transport.c. As a result, the server now supports the many flavors of SVR4 local connections.

The client structure now has privates like windows, pixmaps, and GCs. See include/dixstruct.h, dix/privates.c, and dispatch.c.

Thin line pixelization is now consistent across cfb, mfb, and mi. It is also reversible, meaning the same pixels are touched when drawing from point A to point B as are touched when drawing from point B to point A. A new header file, miline.h, consolidates some miscellaneous line drawing utilities that had previously been duplicated in a number of places.

4.25.1.  Xnest  

A new server, Xnest, uses Xlib to implement ddx rendering. See xc/programs/Xserver/hw/xnest. Xnest lets you run an X server in a window on another X server. Uses include testing dix and extensions, debugging client protocol errors, debugging grabs, and testing interactive programs in a hardware-starved environment.

4.25.2.  Xvfb  

Another new server, Xvfb, uses cfb or mfb code to render into a framebuffer that is allocated in virtual memory. See xc/programs/Xserver/hw/vfb. The framebuffer can be allocated in normal memory, shared memory, or as a memory mapped file. Xvfb's screen is normally not visible; however, when allocated as a memory mapped file, xwd can display the screen by specifying the framebuffer file as its input.

4.25.3.  ddx  

Sun ddx
Expanded device probe table finds multiple frame buffers of the same type. Expanded keymap tables provide support for European and Asian keyboards. Added per-key autorepeat support. Considerable cleanup and duplicate code eliminated. Deletion of SunView support. GX source code now included.
HP ddx
cfb-based sources included as xc/programs/Xserver/hw/hp.
svga ddx
new svga ddx for SVR4 included as xc/programs/Xserver/hw/svga.
xfree86 ddx
ddxen from XFree86, Inc. included as xc/programs/Xserver/hw/xfree86.
Amoeba ddx
ddx for Sun server on the Amoeba operating system included as xc/programs/Xserver/hw/sunAmoeba. The server will require additional patches for this to be usable.

4.26.  New Programs  

xc/config/util/mkshadow/, a replacement for lndir.

4.27.  Old Software  

We have dropped support for the following libraries and programs and have moved them to contrib: CLX library, PHIGS library, MacFS, auto_box, beach_ball, gpc, ico, listres, maze, puzzle, showfont, viewres, xbiff, xcalc, xditview, xedit, xev, xeyes, xfontsel, xgas, xgc, xload, xman, and xpr.

4.28.  xhost  

Two new families have been registered: LocalHost, for connections over a non-network transport, and Krb5Principal, for Kerberos V5 principals.

To distinguish between different host families, a new xhost syntax ``family:name'' has been introduced. Names are as before; families are as follows:

inet:	Internet host
dnet:	DECnet host
nis:	Secure RPC network name
krb:	Kerberos V5 principal
local:	contains only one name, ``''
The old-style syntax for names is still supported when the name does not contain a colon.

4.29.  xrdb  

Many new symbols are defined to tell you what extensions and visual classes are available.

4.30.  twm  

An interface for setting client priorities with the Sync extension has been added.

Many bugs have not been fixed yet.

4.31.  xdm  

There is a new resource, choiceTimeout, that controls how long to wait for a display to respond after the user has selected a host from the chooser.

Support has been added for a modular, dynamically-loaded greeter library. This feature allows different dynamic libraries to by loaded by xdm at run-time to provide different login window interfaces without access to the xdm sources. It works on DEC OSF/1 and SVR4. The name of the greeter library is controlled by another new resource, greeterLib.

When you log in via xdm, xdm will use your password to obtain the initial Kerberos tickets and store them in a local credentials cache file. The credentials cache is destroyed when the session ends.

4.32.  xterm  

Now supports a few escape sequences from HP terminals, such as memory locking. See xc/doc/specs/xterm/ctlseqs.ms for details.

The termcap and terminfo files have been updated.

ctlseqs.ms has moved out of the xterm source directory into xc/doc/specs/xterm.

The logging mis-feature of xterm is removed. This change first appeared as a public patch to Release 5.

Many bugs have not been fixed yet.

4.33.  xset  

The screen saver control option has two new sub-options to immediately activate or deactivate the screen saver: xset s activate and xset s reset.

4.34.  X Test Suite  

The X Test Suite, shipped separately from R5, is now part of the core distribution in R6.

The code has been fixed to work on Alpha AXP. The Xi tests contributed by HP and XIM tests contributed by Sun are integrated.

4.35.  Work in Progress  

Everything under xc/workInProgress represents a work in progress of the X Consortium.

Fresco, Low Bandwidth X (LBX), the Record extension, and the X Keyboard extension (Xkb, which logically belongs here but was too tightly coupled into Xlib and the server to extract) are neither standards nor draft standards, are known to need design and/or implementation work, are still evolving, and will not be compatible with any final standard should such a standard eventually be agreed upon. We are making them available in early form in order to gather broader experimentation and feedback from those willing to invest the time and energy to help us produce better standards.

Any use of these interfaces in commercial products runs the risk of later source and binary incompatibilities.

4.35.1.  Fresco  

R6 includes the first sample implementation of Fresco, a user interface system specified using CORBA IDL and implemented in C++. Fresco is not yet a Consortium standard or draft standard, but is being distributed as a work in progress to demonstrate our current directions and to gather feedback on requirements for a Fresco standard.

The Fresco Sample Implementation has been integrated into the X11R6 build process, and will be built automatically if you have a C++ compiler available. Documentation on Fresco can be found in xc/doc/specs/Fresco. The Fresco and Xtf libraries are found in xc/workInProgress/Fresco and xc/workInProgress/Xtf, respectively. There are some simple Fresco example programs in contrib/examples/Fresco, and a number of related programs in contrib/programs, including:

An IDL to C++ translator
A program to generate FrameMaker MIF documents from comments in an IDL specification
A simple Fresco drawing editor
A TCL interpreter with hooks to Fresco

Working Imakefiles are provided for all of the utilities and examples.

A demo program (dish) is included that shows how a scripting language (Tcl) can rather easily be bound to Fresco through the CORBA dynamic invocation mechanism. A copy of Tcl is included in contrib/lib/tcl.

To build Fresco you must define HasCplusplus in site.def; in addition, you may have to set CplusplusCmd and/or CplusplusDependIncludes to invoke the appropriate C++ compiler and find the required header files during make depend. Finally, you should check the vendor.cf to see if there are any other configuration variables you should set to provide information about your C++ compiler.

Fresco requires a C++ compiler that implements version 3 of the C++ language (as approximately defined by USL cfront version 3). While Fresco does not currently use templates or exceptions, it does make extensive use of nested types, which were inadequately supported in earlier versions of the language.

Fresco has been built with the following platforms and C++ compilers:

SPARCstation  	SunOS 4.1.3	CenterLine C++
SPARCstation	Solaris 2.3	CenterLine C++ (requires v2.0.6)
SPARCstation	Solaris 2.3	SPARCCompiler C++ v4.0
HP 9000/700	HPUX 9.0.1	CenterLine C++
SGI Indy	IRIX 5.2	SGI C++
IBM RS/6000	AIX 3.2.5	IBM xlC
Sony NEWS	NEWSOS 6.0	Sony C++

Fresco has also been compiled on the DEC Alpha under OSF/1 version 2.0 using a beta test version of DEC C++ 1.3. Fresco cannot be built with the Gnu C++ compiler (version 2.5.8 or earlier) due to bugs and limitations in g++.

Building Fresco with CenterLine C++ requires that you pass the -Xa flag to the C++ compiler. Place the following lines in your site.def:

#define HasCenterLineCplusplus YES
#define CplusplusOptions -Xa
If CC is not in your default search path, add this line to site.def:
#define CplusplusCmd /path/to/your/CC

If you are building under Solaris 2, you must use ObjectCenter version 2.0.6 or later; the C++ compiler in ObjectCenter 2.0.4 will produce Fresco applications that dump core on startup.

Fresco does not yet build under Microsoft Windows/NT.

4.35.2.  XKB (X Keyboard Extension)  

Support for XKB is not compiled in to Xlib by default. It is compiled in the X server by default only on Sun and Omron Luna machines. You can compile it in by setting

#define BuildXKB YES	/* for support in the X server */
#define BuildXKBLib YES	/* for support in the X library */
in the file xc/config/cf/site.def. Note that enabling XKB in the X server is a pervasive change; you need to clean the server and rebuild everything if you change this option.

Turning on XKB in the X server usually requires changes to the vendor ddx keyboard handling. There is currently support only in the Sun and Omron ddx.

If you turn on BuildXKBLib, additional functions are added to Xlib. Since the resulting library is non-standard, it is given a different name: libX11kb instead of libX11. All Makefiles produced by imake will use -lX11kb to link Xlib.

The library changes for XKB are known not to work on the Cray; many other systems have been tested, including the Alpha AXP.

There are some XKB test programs in contrib/test/Xkb.

The XKB support in Xlib is still at an early stage of formal review and could change. We expect some additions in an eventual standard, but few changes to the interfaces provided in this implementation. A working draft of the protocol is in /xc/doc/specs/Xkb/.

4.35.3.  LBX (Low Bandwidth X)  

The X Consortium is working to define a standard for running X applications over serial lines, wide area networks, and other slow links. This effort, called Low Bandwidth X (LBX), aims to improve the startup time, performance, and interactive feel of X applications run over low bandwidth transports.

LBX does this by interposing a pseudo-server (called the proxy) between the X clients and the X server. The proxy caches data flowing between the server and the clients, merges the X protocol streams, and compresses the data that is sent over the low bandwidth wire. The X server at the other end uncompresses the data and splits it back out into separate request streams. The target is to make many X applications transparently usable over 9600 bps modems.

A snapshot of the code for this effort is included in xc/workInProgress/lbx/ for people to examine and begin experimenting with. It contains the following features:

However, the following items have yet to be implemented (which is why it isn't a standard yet):

The X Consortium is continuing to work on both the implementation of the remaining items and the full specification. The goal is to have all of the pieces ready for public review later this year. Since the specification for LBX will change, we strongly recommend against anyone incorporating LBX into a product based on this prototype. But, they are encouraged to start looking at the code, examining the concepts, and providing feedback on its design.

4.35.4.  RECORD extension  

RECORD is an X protocol extension that supports the recording of all core X protocol and arbitrary X extension protocol.

A version of the extension is included in xc/workInProgress/record. The implementation does not quite match the version 1.2 draft specification, but the spec is going to change anyway; the version 1.3 draft is in xc/doc/specs/Xext/record.ms. The GetConfig request is not fully implemented. A test program is in contrib/test/record.

4.35.5.  Simple Session Manager  

A simple session manager has been developed to test the new Session Management protocol. At the moment, it does not exercise the complete XSMP protocol and the user interface is rather simple. While it does have enough functionality to make it useful, it needs more work before we would want people to depend on it or use it as a good example of how to implement the session protocol.

We have not yet written a proxy for connecting ICCCM 1.0 clients to the session manager.

A sample client, xsmclient, has been written to demonstrate the session support in Xt.

4.35.6.  Multi-Threaded X Server  

An attempt has been made to merge the multi-threaded server source with the single-threaded source. The result is in the xc/workInProgress/MTXserver directory. The sources here include only files that were changed from the single-threaded server. The multi-threaded server may not compile. Unfortunately, the single-threaded server sources have continued to evolve since this snapshot of the MTXserver was produced, so there is work to be done to get the MTXserver sources back into a state where they can be compiled.

4.36.  ANSIfication  

We've changed our sources to stop using the BSD function names index, rindex, bcopy, bcmp; we now use strchr, strrchr, memcpy/memmove, and memcmp. We still use the name bzero (because there is no BSD equivalent for the general case of memset) but it is translated to memset via a #define in <X11/Xfuncs.h>. The BSD function names are still supported in <X11/Xos.h> and <X11/Xfuncs.h>.

Most client-side uses of caddr_t should now be gone from our sources.

Explicit declarations of errno are now only used on non-ANSI systems.

The libraries use more standard POSIX *_t types.

4.37.  Miscellaneous  

A new version of the patch program is in xc/util/patch; it understands the unified diff format produced by GNU diff.

5.  Filing Bug Reports  

If you find a reproducible bug in software in the xc directory, or find bugs in the xc documentation, please send a bug report to the X Consortium using the form in the file xc/bug-report and this destination address:


Please try to provide all of the information requested on the form if it is applicable; the little extra time you spend on the report will make it much easier for us to reproduce, find, and fix the bug. Receipt of bug reports is generally acknowledged, but sometimes it can be delayed by a few weeks.

Bugs in contrib software should not be reported to the X Consortium. Consult the documentation for the individual software to see where (if anywhere) to report the bug.

6.  Public Fixes  

We occasionally put out patches to X Consortium software, to fix any serious problems that are discovered. Such fixes (if any) can be found on ftp.x.org in the directory pub/R6/fixes, or on your local X mirror site, using anonymous FTP.

For those without FTP access, individual fixes can be obtained by electronic mail by sending a message to


In the usual case, the message should have a subject line and no body, or a single-line body and no subject, in either case the line looking like:

send fixes number

where number is a decimal number, starting from one. To get a summary of available fixes, make the line:

index fixes

If you need help, make the line:


Some mailers produce mail headers that are unusable for extracting return addresses. If you use such a mailer, you won't get any response. If you happen to know an explicit return path, you can include include one in the body of your message, and the daemon will use it. For example:

path user%host.bitnet@mitvma.mit.edu

7.  Acknowledgements  

Release 6 of X Version 11 is brought to you by X Consortium, Inc: Bob Scheifler, Janet O'Halloran, Ralph Swick, Matt Landau, Donna Converse, Stephen Gildea, Jay Hersh, Kaleb Keithley, Ralph Mor, Dave Wiggins, and Gary Cutbill.

Many companies and individuals have cooperated and worked extremely hard to make this release a reality, and our thanks go out to them. You will find many of them listed in the acknowledgements in the individual specifications. Major implementation contributions come from Data General, Digital, Fujitsu, HP, NCD, NCR, Omron, SGI, Sony, SunSoft, and XFree86.

Contributions were received from the follow people at various X Consortium member companies. Each X Window System release is the work of many, many people, and this list is surely incomplete.


Mark Linton (Silicon Graphics); Chuck Price (SunSoft); Charles Brauer (Fujitsu); Steve Churchill (Fujitsu); Steve Tang (Stanford University); Douglas Pan (Fujitsu); Jean-Daniel Fekete (2001 S.A.)

Courtney Loomis (Hewlett-Packard Company); Daniel Dardailler (Open Software Foundation)
Xlib internationalization
The manager of the internationalization project is Masahiko Narita (Fujitsu). The principal authors of Input Method Protocol document are Hideki Hiura (SunSoft) and Masahiko Narita (Fujitsu). The principal authors of Xlib specification Chapter 13 are Hideki Hiura (SunSoft) and Shigeru Yamada (Fujitsu OSSI). The principal producers of the sample implementation of the internationalization facilities are Jeffrey Bloomfield (Fujitsu OSSI), Takashi Fujiwara (Fujitsu), Hideki Hiura (SunSoft), Yoshio Horiuchi (IBM), Makoto Inada (Digital), Hiromu Inukai (Nihon SunSoft), Song JaeKyung (KAIST), Riki Kawaguchi (Fujitsu), Franky Ling (Digital), Hiroyuki Miyamoto (Digital), Hidetoshi Tajima (HP), Toshimitsu Terazono (Fujitsu), Makoto Wakamatsu (Sony), Masaki Wakao (IBM), Shigeru Yamada (Fujitsu OSSI) and Katsuhisa Yano (Toshiba). The coordinators of the integration, testing, and release of this implementation are Nobuyuki Tanaka (Sony) and Makoto Wakamatsu (Sony). Others who have contributed on the architectural design or the testing of sample implementation are Hector Chan (Digital), Michael Kung (IBM), Joseph Kwok (Digital), Hiroyuki Machida (Sony), Nelson Ng (SunSoft), Frank Rojas (IBM), Yoshiyuki Segawa (Fujitsu OSSI), Makiko Shimamura (Fujitsu), Shoji Sugiyama (IBM), Lining Sun (SGI), Masaki Takeuchi (Sony), Jinsoo Yoon (KAIST) and Akiyasu Zen (HP).
Xt Intrinsics
Douglas Rand (Open Software Foundation), parameterized selections; Paul Asente (Adobe Systems Incorporated), extension event handling; Ajay Vohra (SunSoft), support for multithreading; Sam Chang (Novell), widget caching research; Larry Cable (SunSoft), object allocation and change managed set; Vania Joloboff (Open Software Foundation); Courtney Loomis (Hewlett-Packard Company); Daniel Dardailler (Open Software Foundation); and Ellis Cohen (Open Software Foundation). The following people at Georgia Tech contributed the extensions for disability access: Keith Edwards, Susan Liebeskind, Beth Mynatt, and Tom Rodriguez.
Athena Widget Set
Frank Sheeran (Omron Data General)
X Logical Font Description
Paul Asente (Adobe Systems Incorporated); Nathan Meyers (Hewlett-Packard Company); Jim Graham (Sun); Perry A. Caro (Adobe Systems Incorporated)
Font Support Enhancments
Nathan Meyers (Hewlett-Packard Company), implementation of matrix enhancement, glyph caching, scalable aliases, sample authorization protocol
X Transport Library
Stuart R. Anderson (AT&T Global Information Solutions)
X Keyboard Extension
Erik Fortune (Silicon Graphics), design and sample implementation; Jordan Brown (Quarterdeck Office Systems); Will Walker (Digital Equipment Corporation), AccessX portion; Mark Novak (Trace Center), AccessX portion
Low-Bandwidth X
Jim Fulton (Network Computing Devices); Dave Lemke (Network Computing Devices); Dale Tonogai (Network Computing Devices); Keith Packard (Network Computing Devices); Chris Kantarjiev (Xerox PARC)
X Image Extension
Bob Shelley (AGE Logic), protocol architect, lead implementation architect; Larry Hare (AGE Logic), server implementation; Dean Verheiden (AGE Logic), server implementation; Syd Logan (AGE Logic), xieperf; Gary Rogers (AGE Logic), JPEG code, XIElib documentation; Ben Fahy (AGE Logic), client and server implementation
Stuart Marks (SunSoft); Gabe Beged-Dov (Hewlett-Packard Company); Chan Benson (Hewlett-Packard Company); Jordan Brown (Quarterdeck Office Systems); Larry Cable (SunSoft); Ellis Cohen (Open Software Foundation); Brian Cripe (Hewlett-Packard Company); Susan Dahlberg (Silicon Graphics); Peter Daifuku (Silicon Graphics); Andrew deBlois (Open Software Foundation); Clive Feather (IXI); Christian Jacobi (Xerox PARC); Bill Janssen (Xerox PARC); Vania Joloboff (Open Software Foundation); Phil Karlton (Silicon Graphics); Mark Manasse (Digital Equipment Corporation); Todd Newman (Silicon Graphics); Keith Taylor (Hewlett-Packard Company); Jim VanGilder (Digital Equipment Corporation); Mike Wexler (Kubota Pacific); Michael Yee (Apple Computer)

Jordan Brown (Quarterdeck Office Systems); Vania Joloboff (Open Software Foundation); Stuart Marks (SunSoft)

Mike Wexler (Kubota Pacific); Jordan Brown (Quarterdeck Office Systems); Ellis Cohen (Open Software Foundation); Vania Joloboff (Open Software Foundation); Stuart Marks (SunSoft)
SYNC Extension
Tim Glauert (Olivetti Research Limited); Dave Carver (Digital Equipment Corporation); Jim Gettys (Digital Equipment Corporation); Pete Snider (Digital Equipment Corporation)
Martha Zimet (Network Computing Devices); Robert Chesler (Absol-puter); Kieron Drake (UniSoft); Marc Evans (Synergytics); Jim Fulton (Network Computing Devices); Ken Miller (Digital Equipment Corporation)
X Input Extension tests
George Sachs (Hewlett-Packard Company)
Ken Garnett (Shographics); Cheryl Huntington (Sun Microsystems); Karl Schultz (IBM); Jeff Stevenson (Hewlett-Packard Company); Paula Womack (Digital Equipment Corporation)
Multi-Buffering Extension
Eng-Shien Wu (IBM); John Marks (Hewlett-Packard Company); Ian Elliott (Hewlett-Packard Company)
X server
Milind Pansare (SunSoft), pixmap privates; Peter Daifuku (SGI), layered window support; David Lister (Adobe Systems Incorporated), callback manager; Ken Whaley (Kubota Pacific), thin line pixelization; Joel McCormack (Digital Equipment Corporation), 64-bit mfb and cfb; Rob Lembree (Digital Equipment Corporation), 64-bit mfb and cfb; Davor Matic (MIT), xnest ddx; Nathan Meyers (Hewlett-Packard Company), font support; Jordan Brown (Quarterdeck Office Systems), -config option; Michael Brenner (Apple Computer), macII ddx; Thomas Roell, svga ddx
Multi-Threaded X Server
John A. Smith (while at Data General), team leader; H. Chiba (Omron), ddx; Akeio Harada (Omron), ddx; Mike Haynes (Data General), dix; Hidenobu Kanaoka (Omron), ddx; Paul Layne (Data General), dix and ddx; Takayuki Miyake (Omron), ddx; Keith Packard (Network Computing Devices), design; Richard Potts (Data General), dix; Sid Manning (IBM), integration with core server; Rob Chesler (Absol-puter), integration with core server
xdm modular loadable greeter
Peter Derr (Digital Equipment Corporation)
Joel McCormack (Digital Equipment Corporation); Graeme Gill (Labtam Australia); Mark Martin (CETIA)
Stuart R. Anderson (AT&T Global Information Solutions); David Brooks (Open Software Foundation); Kendall Collett (Motorola); John Freeman (Cray); John Freitas (Digital Equipment Corporation); Patrick E. Kane (Motorola); Mark Kilgard (Silicon Graphics); Akira Kon (NEC); Masahiko Narita (Fujitsu); Paul Shearer (Sequent); Mark Snitily (SGCS)
XFree86 port
Stuart R. Anderson (AT&T Global Information Solutions); Doug Anson; Gertjan Akkerman; Mike Bernson; David Dawes; Marc Evans; Pascal Haible; Matthieu Herrb; Dirk Hohndel; David Holland; Alan Hourihane; Jeffrey Hsu; Glenn Lai; Ted Lemon; Rich Murphey; Hans Nasten; Mark Snitily; Randy Terbush; Jon Tombs; Kees Verstoep; Paul Vixie; Mark Weaver; David Wexelblat; Philip Wheatley; Thomas Wolfram; Orest Zborowski

Under xc/fonts/, the misc/ directory contains a family of fixed-width fonts from Dale Schumacher, several Kana fonts from Sony Corporation, two Hangul fonts from Daewoo Electronics, two Hebrew fonts from Joseph Friedman, two cursor fonts from Digital Equipment Corporation, and cursor and glyph fonts from Sun Microsystems. The Speedo directory contains outline fonts contributed by Bitstream, Inc. The 75dpi and 100dpi directories contain bitmap fonts contributed by Adobe Systems, Inc., Digital Equipment Corporation, Bitstream, Inc., Bigelow and Holmes, and Sun Microsystems, Inc.

Table of Contents

1. Easy Build Instructions
2. What Is Release 6
2.1. Overview of the X Consortium Release
2.2. Supported Systems
2.3. The XC Tree
2.3.1. config/
2.3.2. lib/
2.3.3. doc/
2.3.4. extensions
2.4. Extensions supported
2.5. Implementation Parameters
3. Building X
3.1. Unpacking the Distribution
3.1.1. Unpacking a Compressed FTP Distribution
3.1.2. Unpacking a gzipped FTP Distribution
3.1.3. Unpacking a Split Compressed FTP Distribution
3.1.4. Unpacking the Tape Distribution
3.1.5. Using the CD-ROM
3.2. Apply Patches
3.3. Symbolic Link Trees
3.4. Configuration Parameters
3.5. System Notes
3.5.1. gcc
3.5.2. SparcWorks 2.0
3.5.3. CenterLine C under Solaris 2.3
3.5.4. Microsoft Windows NT
3.6. The Build
3.7. Installing X
3.8. Shared Libraries
3.9. Setting Up xterm
3.10. Starting Servers at System Boot
3.11. Using OPEN LOOK applications
3.12. Rebuilding after Patches
3.13. Building Contributed Software
4. What Is New in Release 6
4.1. New Standards
4.2. XIE (X Image Extension)
4.3. Inter-Client Communications Conventions Manual
4.3.1. Window Management
4.3.2. Selections
4.3.3. Resource Sharing
4.3.4. Session Management
4.4. ICE (Inter-Client Exchange)
4.5. SM (Session Management)
4.6. Input Method Protocol
4.7. X Logical Font Description
4.8. SYNC extension
4.9. BIG-REQUESTS extension
4.10. XC-MISC extension
4.11. XTEST extension
4.12. Tree Reorganization
4.13. Configuration Files
4.14. Kerberos
4.15. X Transport Library (xtrans)
4.16. Xlib
4.17. Internationalization
4.18. Xt
4.19. Xaw
4.19.1. AsciiText
4.19.2. Command, Label, List, MenuButton, Repeater, SmeBSB, and Toggle
4.20. PEX
4.20.1. PEX Standards and Functionality
4.21. Header Files
4.22. Fonts
4.23. Font library
4.24. Font server
4.25. X server
4.25.1. Xnest
4.25.2. Xvfb
4.25.3. ddx
4.26. New Programs
4.27. Old Software
4.28. xhost
4.29. xrdb
4.30. twm
4.31. xdm
4.32. xterm
4.33. xset
4.34. X Test Suite
4.35. Work in Progress
4.35.1. Fresco
4.35.2. XKB (X Keyboard Extension)
4.35.3. LBX (Low Bandwidth X)
4.35.4. RECORD extension
4.35.5. Simple Session Manager
4.35.6. Multi-Threaded X Server
4.36. ANSIfication
4.37. Miscellaneous
5. Filing Bug Reports
6. Public Fixes
7. Acknowledgements

Markup created by unroff 1.0,    March 21, 1996,    net@informatik.uni-bremen.de